What Led To The Egyptian Revolution?
Economic And Social Distress
Leading up to the Revolution in Egypt, there were around 40% of Egyptians living under the international poverty line. Like most social classes studied among the 3 revolutions featured here, the economy was not at its best. Money was not being distributed the way it should be, and so people living in poverty were working much more than others, yet getting pay barely enough to survive on. Around 337,000 people lost their jobs here in 2011.
The Central Bank put reserves at $22 billion at the end of October, down $2 billion from a month earlier and showing a faster decline than in previous months.
A Letter from Egypt
Arab and Muslim countries and their leaders
May God’s blessing be upon you
Greetings to the leaders and the people
What I unfortunately see today happening in Muslim countries with respect to the leaders’ conduct towards their people
Once upon a time we used to wage war in the name of God and say to the world: “We are Muslims ruled by God’s Qur’an and the Sunna of Muhammad, peace be upon him.” And those who died would be considered martyrs who would go to heaven. And our conquests ended successfully in Egypt and many other countries, thanks be to God.
And now Muslims are killing Muslims, and the worst thing is that those defending Muslims are not from among our people. They say that we are without culture and without religion.
The ruler kills his father, mother, and children along with his people, so by what religion are you ruling your people? Don’t you know that your sovereignty derives from your Lord? How will you face up to him on the Day of Judgment? Won’t he tell you, oh oppressor who went astray from governance, that you won’t escape?
The money is not your money and the land is not your land, nor is the sky your sky or the sea your sea. All of it belongs to God, may his name be glorified.
The devil tells you to rule forever and to pass rule on to your children and grandchildren. In order to provide for your kin, your country and people become a mere inheritance.
You are an individual, but the people are numerous, and among them are many individuals who are better than you… Better that you live with your dear people so that God is satisfied with you than that you be forced to leave and then remain in the dust while people step on you, for from dust you came and to dust you shall return.
People, we are exposed and there is no veil between the Lord and us. We should take heed from the earthquakes in Japan and the hurricanes in the United States. The seas shall be calm for Him who is above them, and the devil has no hold over us as He said: “I will seduce them all except for your true believers,” and he is the one who took Adam and Eve out of Paradise.
Those other, secondary countries unite… We Muslims have a religion which says that uniting gives us strength, for we speak Arabic and we are Arab and Muslim; our countries and our governments are all in trouble, countries that live but have forgotten the unity of all Arabs.
Our countries can, with the help of their investors, sow the lands of all Muslim countries. The yield of their harvests can suffice our Arab and Muslim people, and it will overflow if we import and leave our lands without planting wheat.
Muslim countries have scholars, doctors, engineers, teachers, and investors, and we have only just begun. We are Muslims. Unfortunately, the Arab League doesn’t come together for anything but disagreements, not for Arab or Muslim unity. Thus, self-sufficiency unfortunately becomes impossible to execute.
Arab leaders and Muslims, this is a message from an Arab Egyptian: for the sake of God, you must unite and not separate. Let the Arabs and Muslims love each other. Don’t let passports, borders, and other separations between Muslim countries and Muslims come between us. We must be like buildings constructed close together, holding each other up.
It’s time to say it, oh Arabs and Muslims:
Farewell, and may the blessings of God be upon you
Egypt and its people
Hani Gawda Hafiz
Acquired 29 April 2011
Translated by Noga Malkin
What Could Have Led To This Recent Outbreak?
"CAIRO - It was sparked on social-networking sites, and inspired by a revolution in Tunisia. In 18 days, it grew into something astounding - a leaderless people's movement that at every turn outsmarted a government with an almost unblemished 30-year record of suppressing dissent."
-Leida Fadel, The Washington Post
The government's efforts to control the message by cutting off the Internet and phones, and by arresting scores of journalists and activists, similarly backfired. Each day, ever greater numbers of Egyptians turned out to the square to see for themselves the movement reshaping their country.
Their dictator thought he was king, and thought he ruled over everyone and everything. He was very self centered and thought he could rule over anyone and anything. This caused many people to revolt and start fighting for their rights as human beings.
The Role of The Military:
The Egyptian military has emerged as one of the most powerful and influential military's since the start of the modern Egyptian state. However, since the 1970s, there has been little focus on the military, even though it has continued to play a role in Egyptian political and economic life, as an institution and a community of high ranking people in the social class of elites.
Under Mubarak, a new economic elite had emerged, of which his son Gamal was a key figure. This group constituted a powerful challenge to others within the ruling class.The presence of this "neoliberal" group caused a shift in the ruling National Democratic Party. A people started to challenge Mubarak, the military had to become stronger, and so as the revolution began, and became stronger, so did the military.